Today's source is "A Cyclopaedia of Six Thousand Practical Receipts, and Collateral Information" by Arnold James Cooley, 1854, pages 44 - 45.
ALE, SCOTCH. This ale is brewed from the finest pale malt, (made from the best English barley,) and the best East Kent Hops, or for long keeping, Farnham's or Country's. The brewing is restricted to the colder portions of the year, as it never succeeds so well during the months of May, June, July, August, and September. Only one mash is made, and that at a temperature of about 180°, with one-third of the quantity of the water necessary for the brewing. The mash-tun is then covered up for half an hour, when the wort is drawn off, and a quantity of water, at the same temperature as before, sprinkled uniformly over its surface. Тhis is performed by throwing the water into a vessel with a bottom full of holes, somewhat resembling a shower-bath, from whence it descends and gets equally distributed over every portion of the malt. After an interval of about twenty minutes, this wort is drawn off from several small cocks or holes, placed round the circumference of the bottom, by which means the hot water is made to percolate equally through every particle of the mass. This operation, called "sparging," is performed a second time, with a fresh portion of hot water, and after a like interval, is again drawn off. This process is repeated several times, until the density of the mixed worts becomes adapted to the quality of the ale required Usually eight or ten "spargings" are employed, the latter at about 5° or 10° cooler than the first The skilful brewer so divides his water that it may produce a wort of the proper gravity; but when a very strong one is required, the latter "sparges" are used for table beer, or as water for mashing a fresh quantity of malt. In this way, 1 quarter of malt will yield full 81 lbs. of extract. The wort is next boiled, with 4 lbs. of hops to every quarter of malt, and afterwards cooled down to 50° before adding the yeast. The latter must not exceed half a gallon for every 100 gallons of wort. The fermentation now commences and proceeds slowly, and in some brewings is accelerated by rousing up twice a day. Should more yeast be absolutely required in a few days, a little may be added. The fermentation generally continues for 15 to 20 days; and the ale is not cleansed before the degree of attenuation does not exceed 0.5 lb. per diem, and not more than quarter of the original gravity of the wort remains. This process is then performed by drawing off without skimming. As soon as the fermentation is finished, the ale is put into carefully prepared casks, and stored in a cold cellar. Here it soon becomes fine, and seldom wants racking before sale. The usual gravity per barrel of the best Scotch ale is about 36 or 40 lbs., and is seldom lower than 32 lbs. or higher than 44 lbs.There's so much good stuff in this description. I'll summarise for you:
- brewed from pale malt and Kent hops
- not brewed in the summer
- single mash and multiple sparges
- 4 pounds of hops per quarter
- extract of 81 lbs per quarter
- pitching temperature 50º F
- long, slow fermentation of two to three weeks
- FG bot more than 25% of OG
- OG usually between 1100º and 1111º, minimum 1089, maximum 1122º
I'm pretty tempted to get a Scotch Ale brewed. You can help me work out the recipe, if you like.