Friday, 26 February 2010

Stout in the mid 1950's

More from Andrew Campbell's excellent "The Book Of Beer". How appropriate that it was published in the year of my birth.

First, his take on the ingredients of Stout:

"To produce stout the proportion of pale malt will be lower [than two-thirds], perhaps down to under half the total, with sugar in a two to one proportion  to a blend of higher roasted crystal or amber malts, and some black malt. Darker colour and fuller flavour will result. London stouts are mostly lightly hopped and sweet; Irish stouts bitter. Occasionally a proportion of oat malt is added to accentuate the mealy flavour."
"The Book Of Beer" by Andrew Campbell, 1956, page 85.

He's not 100% accurate with regard to London Stout. Whitbread used a combination of mild ale malt, brown malt, chocolate malt and No3 invert sugar. Barclay Perkins went with a mix of mild ale malt, brown malt, crystal malt, back malt or roasted barley and dark brewing sugar.

He goes on to describe the types of Stout available. Public taste, it appears, was moving towards sweeter Stouts in most instances.

"Ordinary stouts are not often to be found on draught, as their rather full qualities can mature to excess and spoilage will result. Guinness, a strong Irish stout, reaches perfect condition within three or four days of bottling, when it will be rich, full and creamy. Kept in storage too long it may become stale and develop a rather acrid flavour. Guinness is a well-hopped stout, brewed without sugar, and has a bitter flavour which makes the regular drinker reject the sweeter stouts.

During the last few years Younger, Charrington, Watney and other brewers have produced sweet stouts, for which there is strong demand. Some are new brews, some area new name and label to replace the pre-1939 milk stout, now illegal unless the brew actually contains milk.

The stronger stouts - Guinness, Whitbread's, Mackeson's, Hammerton's (Watney's) - range upwards from 1040º. The import figures from Eire show quite clearly that Guinness is around 1046º, with about 4.5 per cent alcohol by volume. There are a few very strong types, such as Barclay's Imperial Stout and Simond's Archangel Stout, brewed well above the 1070º mark and getting toward the strength, bulk for bulk, of French wine.

Analysis of figures published in various trade and scientific journals in recent years show the following typical srengths of stout:


Stouts in the mid 1950's
Number of examples
gravity
type
1
1032º
Ordinary stout
1
1036º
Ordinary stout
5
1040º-1042º
Stronger stout
8
1045º-1047º
Including several London and Irish brews
3
1050º-1052º
Stronger still
1
1055º
A Scottish brew
3
1075º
Very strong
1
1092º
The strongest
Source:
"The Book Of Beer" by Andrew Campbell, 1956, page 86.

Fifteen similar samples for mild show four as low as 1023º, one at 1028º, four at 1031º-1033º, and six in the best mild category of 1037º-1039º. A Scotch ale was 1043º, and a best mild was as high as 1046º, which really puts it with the Burtons.

The Scotch ales sold in the South of England are stronger sweet mild beers, but there are distinctions between brews which are considered in a later chaper."
"The Book Of Beer" by Andrew Campbell, 1956, pages 85-87.
 He wasn't far out with his estimation of Guiness's OG. As you'll see below, is was around 1047º. There was a bigger spread of gravities than for other styles, covering pretty much the whole range of British beer strengths.

I'm pleased to see that he differentiates between London and Irish Stout. Though sweet Stout was not totally dominant amongst English Stouts.

Here's my own table, which corroborates many of Campbell's assertions:


Stouts in the mid 1950's
Year
Brewer
Beer
Price
size
package
FG
OG
Colour
ABV
Atten-uation
1956
Adams
Double Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1015.2
1036.6
275
2.76
58.47%
1954
Adnams. Southwold
Black Velvet Sweet Stout (no lactose)
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1020.9
1043.7
675
2.93
52.17%
1954
Aitken & Co
A Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1021.2
1041.4
1 + 20
2.59
48.79%
1954
Ansell, Birmingham
New Best Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1015.7
1049.7
1 + 9
4.40
68.41%
1956
Atkinsons [Aston, Birmingham]
Double Punch Stout
1/3.5d
half pint
bottled
1018.9
1051.8
500
4.25
63.51%
1955
Beamish & Crawford
Irish Stout (no lactose)


bottled
1009.6
1039.5
212
3.88
75.70%
1954
Bent's
Red Label Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1017.8
1049.2
300
4.06
63.82%
1954
Bents Brewery
Imperial Stone Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1006.5
1039.8
200
4.34
83.67%
1954
Bernard
Export Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1013.3
1043.9
1 + 14
3.96
69.70%
1955
Blair & Co
Sweet Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1010.9
1033.1
300
2.87
67.07%
1955
Brains
Extra Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1014.6
1039.1
215
3.16
62.66%
1955
Brutton, Mitchell, Toms Ltd.
Ruby Stout (lactose present)
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1023.6
1040.9
475
2.22
42.30%
1956
Bullard & Sons [Norwich]
Double Stout (no lactose)
1/-
half pint
bottled
1008.1
1038.7
275
3.98
79.07%
1954
Calder
Scotch Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1015.9
1040.9
1 + 14
3.23
61.12%
1955
Castletown
Manx Oyster Stout


bottled
1013
1063
250
6.53
79.37%
1954
Chesham & Brackley
Raven Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1015.8
1047.5
475
4.10
66.74%
1954
Chester Brewery Co
Extra Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1006.5
1042.7
250
4.72
84.78%
1955
Cresswell
Oatmeal Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1011.9
1035.6
325
3.06
66.57%
1956
Deuchar R
Edinburgh Sweet Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1016.8
1042.9
300
3.37
60.84%
1955
Devenish, Weymouth
Double Weymouth Sweet Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1015.6
1042.8
400
3.51
63.55%
1956
East Anglian Breweries
Ely Silk Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1015.4
1046.2
275
3.98
66.67%
1956
East Anglian Breweries
Ely Oatmeal Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1011.7
1038
350
3.40
69.21%
1956
Ely Brewery
Cardiff Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1005.4
1034.9
300
3.84
84.53%
1954
Flowers Breweries Ltd
Table Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1015.2
1046.1
325
4.00
67.03%
1955
Fowler
Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1018.6
1038
400
2.49
51.05%
1954
G Younger
Extra Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1018
1037.5
1 + 30
2.51
52.00%
1954
Greene King
Stout
9.5d
half pint
bottled
1012.7
1034.3
450
2.79
62.97%
1954
Greene King
Sweet Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1020.3
1046.6
450
3.39
56.44%
1954
Groves & Whitnall
Red Rose Stout (Lactose present)
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1016.9
1048.8
300
4.13
65.37%
1954
Guinness
Extra Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1007.1
1047.4
1 + 13
5.26
85.02%
1954
Guinness
Extra Stout
1/3.5d
half pint
bottled
1006.6
1047.5
200
5.34
86.11%
1955
Guinness
Export Stout

half pint
bottled
1013.3
1071.4
175
7.61
81.37%
1954
Hall & woodhouse
Glucose Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1014.7
1042.7
375
3.62
65.57%
1956
Hammonds
Senior Sovereign Sweet Stout
1/3.5d
half pint
bottled
1016.2
1050.4
300
4.43
67.86%
1954
Hancocks
M Stout (Lactose present)
1/-
half pint
bottled
1014.5
1043
350
3.69
66.28%
1955
Hancocks
Extra Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1012.2
1034.1
200
2.83
64.22%
1954
Hey &Son [Bradford]
White Rose Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1010.8
1038.1
210
3.54
71.65%
1956
Hey & Son [Bradford]
White Rose Stout (no lactose)
1/3.5d
half pint
bottled
1019.9
1047.2
425
3.52
57.84%
1955
Hope & Anchor Brewery, Sheffield
Royal Jubilee Stout

half pint
bottled
1019.9
1059.5
325
5.13
66.55%
1954
Hydes, Manchester
Special Stout (Lactose present)
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1010.9
1043.2
225
4.19
74.77%
1955
J & J Morison
Sweet Stout
9d
nip
bottled
1012.3
1035.7
325
3.02
65.55%
1955
J Aitken
Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1019.5
1040.3
325
2.67
51.61%
1954
Jeffrey & Co
Nourishing Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1019.3
1036.1
1 + 14
2.16
46.54%
1954
John Smith, Tadcaster
Magnet Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1021.6
1047
195
3.27
54.04%
1954
JW Green, Luton
Oatmeal Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1007.4
1039.1
228
4.12
81.07%
1954
JW Lees & Co Ltd
Archer Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1008.5
1040.7
225
4.19
79.12%
1954
JW Paddey
Paddey's Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1015.9
1037.2
275
2.74
57.26%
1956
Lacons, Yarmouth
Extra Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1015.5
1034.5
300
2.45
55.07%
1954
Lamb Brewery Co.
Double Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1022.8
1047.2
300
3.14
51.69%
1955
Maclachlan
Extra Sweet Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1014.8
1035.8
225
2.71
58.66%
1954
Magee Marshall
Extra Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1006.4
1043.5
200
4.84
85.29%
1954
Mardens
Mylki Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1012
1043.1
250
4.03
72.16%
1955
McEwan
Sweet Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1018.6
1038.4
375
2.55
51.56%
1954
McLennan & Urquhart
Dalkeith Stout


bottled
1019.7
1037.1
450
2.23
46.90%
1954
McMullen, Hertford
Mac Stout
11.5d
half pint
bottled
1012.6
1039.4
1 + 15
3.47
68.02%
1954
Mitchell & Butler, Birmingham
Extra Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1011.2
1049
1 + 14
4.92
77.14%
1956
Morgans Brewery Ltd [Norwich]
Viking Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1016
1035.4
150
2.50
54.80%
1955
Murray W
Export Stout
1/3d
nip
bottled
1015.8
1064.6
350
6.36
75.54%
1955
P Phipps & Co Ltd
Velvet Stout
1/4d
half pint
bottled
1018.2
1045
475
3.46
59.56%
1954
Plymouth Breweries
Brown Imperial Stout
1/0.5d
half pint
bottled
1018.5
1048.6
375
3.89
61.93%
1954
Plymouth Breweries
Oatmeal Stout
1/0.5d
half pint
bottled
1019.2
1048.7
400
3.81
60.57%
1955
Rayments
Town Stout (lactose absent)
11d
half pint
bottled
1019.9
1040.2
225
2.61
50.50%
1954
Russells
Imperial Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1016.8
1041.6
175
3.20
59.62%
1956
Samuel Webster & Sons
Velvet Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1022.3
1045.1
425
2.93
50.55%
1954
Steel & Coulson
Elephant Sweet Stout
1/2.5-
half pint
bottled
1014.1
1041.7
350
3.57
66.19%
1956
Steward & Patteson, Norwich
Stout
1/3d
nip
bottled
1027.4
1064.6
350
4.79
57.59%
1955
Tennant Bros. Ltd, Sheffield
Malt Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1017.5
1036.2
350
2.41
51.66%
1956
Tennant Bros. Ltd, Sheffield
Glucose Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1021
1040.4
225
2.49
48.02%
1955
Tennent
Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1019.3
1034.7
325
1.98
44.38%
1955
Thornley
Special Glucose Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1018.7
1040.6
375
2.82
53.94%
1956
Thornley's Radford Brewery
Gluco Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1021.2
1042.3
400
2.71
49.88%
1954
Threlfalls Brewery
Extra Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1011.5
1046.9
225
4.60
75.48%
1954
Thwaites, Blackburn
Cream Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1013.2
1044.3
200
4.03
70.20%
1954
Vaux & Co
Sweet Strong Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1016.4
1047.6
1 + 20
4.03
65.55%
1954
Whitaker
Standard Stout
1/-
half pint
bottled
1014.3
1037.2
250
2.96
61.56%
1954
Whitbread
Mackeson Stout
1/3.5d
half pint
bottled
1019.5
1046.6
1 + 20
3.49
58.15%
1956
Whitbread
EMS

half pint
bottled
1020.3
1056.7
325
4.71
64.20%
1954
Whitworth Son & Nephew
Sweet Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1017.6
1044.7
375
3.50
60.63%
1954
Wilsons
Wembly Extra Stout
1/1d
half pint
bottled
1017.4
1044.3
325
3.47
60.72%
1954
Wm. Younger & Co
Nourishing Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1021.6
1046.3
1 + 16
3.18
53.35%
1954
Wm. Younger & Co
Capital Stout (Lactose present)
1/4d
half pint
bottled
1019.7
1046.5
250
3.45
57.63%
1955
Worthington
Imperial Stout (White Shield)


bottled
1017.3
1078.2
325
7.97
77.88%
1956
Worthington
XX Stout
1/2d
half pint
bottled
1013.8
1036.7
300
2.96
62.40%
1956
Young, Crawshay & Young
Double Stout
11d
half pint
bottled
1011.2
1037.8
400
3.44
70.37%
1956
Younger
Sweetheart Stout
1/3d
half pint
bottled
1024.6
1037.6
225
1.66
34.57%
Source:
Whitbread Gravity Book

There's still plenty more to come from Campbell. Plenty more.

4 comments:

zythophile said...

"Guinness, a strong Irish stout, reaches perfect condition within three or four days of bottling"

David Hughes, "A Bottle of Guinness Please" says Guinness told its bottlers in 1950 to keep it five to 10 days before sending it to the retailers (p76). On p74 he says that in the 1970s "the stout required 21 days in bottle to condition fully". So I would say Mr Campbell is not quite on target here.

Interesting [sic] use of the word 'strong', too: in the midst of all that weak mild, 1047OG was 'strong'.

Ron Pattinson said...

My brother was able to interpret the notches on Guinness labels that indicated when it had been bottled. It was always at least a couple of weeks old. He reckoned it was better after a month or two in the bottle.

Graham Wheeler said...

I would suggest that Mr Campbell made one of those typo's that we are all guilty of from time to time. I guess he meant weeks rather than days.

It should take a minimum of three weeks at an appropriate temperature for it to come into condition.

Zythophile said...

I believe you've hit the nail on the head there, Graham. When I had the Pitfield Brewery make me a 1050OG "London and Dublin Stout" for my marriage to the very lovely Emer in 1997, the cask version was fine after only a couple of weeks, but the bottled version of the same beer hit its peak after exactly a month. (And damned fine it was too …)