" . . originating in England in the early 1800’s, IPA was brewed to survive the voyage to the troops all around the world where many were stationed in India, where the hot climate wasn’t conducive to brewing. The beer was brewed strong and hoppy to prevent spoilage during the long trip, and the extreme temperature changes combined with the rolling of the seas resulted in a highly attenuated beer upon arrival."
Kegworks blog, http://www.kegworks.com/blog/2010/09/13/top-5-american-ipa/
"The original English IPAs were very strong and extremely hoppy, running 7-10% alcohol by volume. Brewers soon began producing similar ales for domestic consumption, but toned down both the alcohol content and the bitterness. This was partly as an effort to cater to consumer wishes, and partly because of the English taxation system. Until 1880, taxes were charged based on the raw materials used in the brewing process, but with passage of the “Free Mash Tun Act,” the tax assessment became based on the alcohol potential of the brew. Higher strength beers were taxed at a considerably higher rate, so lower strength beers became popular."
"The formal use of the term “Brown Ale” is tied to the introduction of Porter in the early 1700′s. Brown ale was likely known simply as “Ale” before that since almost all English ales would have been brown prior to 1700. The term “Brown Ale” was also used interchangeably for the next 100 years to describe both Porters and Stouts. Brown was in fact a generic term used to describe the insanely popular Porter of this period. [Ref: Daniels]
In the early 1800′s, some distinction was being made between Stouts, Porters and Milds. In many cases Brown ale was produced by making a Stout or Porter with the first runnings and then collecting the second runnings of the Mash to produce Brown ales. However, throughout the 18th century “brown” was still used extensively to describe Stouts, Porters and other dark beers brewed primarily around London."
"Russian imperial stouts were first brewed in the 18th century by brewers in Burton, England to be shipped to the court of Russian Empress Catherine the Great. Catherine apparently became quite smitten by stouts during a visit to England and demanded some be sent back to her when she returned home; unfortunately the first few batches did not survive the long trip to Russia. Catherine demanded that the English find some way to get her beloved porter to her, and being empress, she got what she wanted. To accomplish this goal the Barclay Perkins brewery crafted a stout to survive the trek much sweeter and stronger than anything available in England at the time and a new style was born."
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