If you've been playing close attention you might have noticed something missing: Porter and Stout. There's a good reason for that. I managed to not find a single one in the William Younger's log, despite having well over 100 beers. I know from other years that they weren't brewing huge amounts of either. Maybe I just selected the wrong months. Whatever, it's irritating because I can't do a full comparison. Don't despair. In the next set, the 1850's, I've plenty.
True to tradition, I'll show you the numbers first:
|Date||Year||Brewer||Beer||Style||OG||FG||ABV||App. Atten-uation||lbs hops/ qtr||hops lb/brl||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||boil time (hours)||Pitch temp||max. fer-ment-ation temp||length of fer-ment-ation (days)|
|25th Feb||1841||Truman||XXK Ale||Stock Ale||1094.2||1034.6||7.88||63.24%||11||4.92||58||77||12|
|15th Jan||1846||Truman||KXX Ale||Stock Ale||1098.6||1021.9||10.15||77.81%||14.0||5.93||58.5||77||12|
|7th Apr||1841||Whitbread||KXXX||Stock Ale||1100.6||1029.9||9.34||70.25%||9.36||4.06||2||2||3||60||79||12|
|14th Apr||1841||Whitbread||KXXX||Stock Ale||1100.8||1029.9||9.38||70.33%||9.42||4.13||2||2||3||60||79||7|
|19th Mar||1841||Whitbread||KXXX||Stock Ale||1101.9||1028.5||9.71||72.01%||9.09||3.78||2||2||3||60||79||7|
|10th Apr||1841||Truman||XXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1102.5||1024.1||10.37||76.49%||14||7.74||60||78.5||10|
|22nd Apr||1841||Whitbread||KXXX||Stock Ale||1102.5||1029.9||9.60||70.81%||5.96||2.55||2||2||3||60||79||8|
|15th Jul||1840||Truman||XXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1103.9||1032.4||9.45||68.80%||12||6.22||58.5||77||9|
|17th Feb||1846||Truman||KXXX Ale||Stock Ale||1104.7||1023.0||10.81||78.04%||15.0||7.81||58||80.5||11|
|13th Jan||1846||Truman||XXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1106.9||1025.2||10.81||76.42%||14.7||7.18||58||80||12|
|1st Mar||1841||Truman||XXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1106.9||12||6.44||58.5||78.5||13|
|17th Mar||1841||Truman||XXXMK Ale||Stock Ale||1108.3||1034.1||9.82||68.54%||8.0||4.21||58.5||81||11|
|1st Apr||1846||Truman||KXXXX Ale||Stock Ale||1114.1||1032.7||10.77||71.36%||16.0||9.70||58||81||15|
|5th Mar||1841||Truman||XXXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1117.7||1038.8||10.44||67.06%||14||7.65||58||12|
|28th Jan||1846||Truman||XXXXK Ale||Stock Ale||1118.0||1034.9||10.99||70.42%||16.0||11.19||58||78.5||15|
|27th Mar||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1124||1053||9.39||57.26%||11.50||8.53||1||1||52||71||10|
|9th Mar||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1126||1052||9.79||58.73%||10.00||7.50||1||53||71||12|
|7th Oct||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1126||1055||9.39||56.35%||6.18||3.94||1.08||57||72||10|
|16th Nov||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1126||1055||9.39||56.35%||6.13||5.94||1.08||54||72||9|
|29th Dec||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1127||1055||9.53||56.69%||8.90||5.45||1||56||56||9|
|9th Jan||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1127||1053||9.79||58.27%||9.14||5.29||1||54||72||10|
|2nd Apr||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1127||1057||9.26||55.12%||12.00||8.49||1.08||0.92||54||71||10|
|19th Feb||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1128||1053||9.92||58.59%||7.91||4.84||0.92||54||71||9|
|15th Mar||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1128||1059||9.13||53.91%||7.65||4.41||0.92||53||69||11|
|7th Apr||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1128||1058||9.26||54.69%||12.00||8.70||1||53||70||11|
|17th Apr||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1129||1056||9.66||56.59%||7.00||4.81||1||1||53||72||10|
|16th Jan||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1129||1056||9.66||56.59%||8.14||6.33||1||54||71||9|
|27th Sep||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1129||1059||9.26||54.26%||8.00||6.19||1||56||72||9|
|11th Mar||1848||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1130||1059||9.39||54.62%||7.61||4.71||0.92||53||69||11|
|27th Jan||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1130||1057||9.66||56.15%||5.81||5.63||1||53||70||12|
|6th Jun||1849||Younger, Wm.||140/-||Ale||1132||1057||9.92||56.82%||11.00||8.32||1.08||54||72||10|
|4th Apr||1849||Younger, Wm.||160/-||Ale||1134||1063||9.39||52.99%||12.96||7.94||1||53||70||11|
|13th Nov||1849||Younger, Wm.||S||Stock Ale||1095||1028||8.86||70.53%||10.31||4.85||1||55||67||10|
|7th Apr||1849||Younger, Wm.||S||Stock Ale||1097||1031||8.73||68.04%||12.00||4.92||1||54||67||10|
|12th Nov||1849||Younger, Wm.||XS||Stock Ale||1108||1036||9.53||66.67%||11.50||6.73||1||55||69||10|
|Truman brewing record document numbers B/THB/C/122 and B/THB/C/127 held at the London Metropolitan Archives|
|William Younger brewing record document number WY/6/1/2/3 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive|
|Whitbread brewing record document number LMA/4453/D/01/004 held at the London Metropolitan Archives|
A word of caution. The Scottish and London beers in this set aren't a perfect match. The strongest London beer has a gravity of 1118º. Virtually all the Scottish beers have a higher OG. The average OG of the Scottish beers is more than 22º more.
Bearing that in mind, let's look at the hopping rates. This time Younger's beers come second, but by a tiny amount. For once, the greater variation is amongst the London beers, with both the most and the least heavily hopped. Factor in the gravity difference, and the London beers are a clear winner. How do I do that? Look at the hopping rate per quarter. It's 23% higher in the London beers. So: in the 1840's Younger's Stock Ales were on average less heavily hopped than equivalent London beers.
It's unfortunate that I only have the boil times from Whitbread of the London brewers. Though I do know from later years that Whitbread's weren't untypical. 70 minutes was the Longest Younger boil. That's very short, especially for a strong beer. This one is easy: in the 1840's Younger's Stock Ales had much shorter boils than equivalent London beers.
I'm definitely seeing a pattern in fermentation temperatures across all the styles. I'm starting to get quite confident about this. It's the same story here. The pitching temperature of Younger's beers was on average almost 5º F cooler. The maximum fermentation temperature was almost 9º F cooler. Excuse me if you've heard this before: in the 1840's Younger's Stock Ales were fermented cooler than equivalent London beers, on average around 7 - 8º F.
Given the higher gravity and cooler fermentation temperature, it's a surprise to discover that on average Younger's beers took almost a day less to ferment on average. The rather surprising conclusion is: in the 1840's Younger's Stock Ales took less time to ferment than equivalent London beers.
This might explain the difference in fermentation time. Younger's beers had a much lower degree of attenuation. Under 60% on average. But again, it's caveat time. I'm not convinced the 140/- and 160/- are really Stock Ales.If you look at the last three Younger beers, they are definitely Stock Ales. And their degree of attenuation is much closer to the London beers. But still lower. Funnily enough, despite their huge gravities, none of Younger's beers is above 10% ABV, while half the London beers were. In the 1840's Younger's Stock Ales were less attenuated and lower in alcohol than equivalent London beers.
I would give you a summary of all the styles now, highlighting any difference s with England. But I feel shit. I left my breakfast at the side of the road on the way to the bus stop this morning. Not nice. You'll have to wait a day or two for my roundup.