Showing posts with label BJCP. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BJCP. Show all posts

Sunday, 4 November 2012

Maclay PA 6d 1939 - 1992

More Maclay stuff, this time focusing on PA 6d. A beer that was, for a long time in the 1930's and 1940's Maclay's bread and butter beer. But it hides a strange secret behind its name.

I twigged what that secret was when I got to about 1951 in my log trawl. It's made me do some rethinking about Scottish beer. Particularly about the nature of 60/-, 70/- and 80/-. But before we get onto such philosophical questions, let's take a look at the beer itself:


Maclay PA 6d 1939 - 1992
Date Year OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp max. fermen-tation temp length of fermen-tation (days) pale malt crystal malt no. 1 sugar no. 2 sugar caramel DCS sugar oats flaked maize flaked rice wheat malt flaked barley malted oats torrefied wheat malt extract
21st Feb 1939 1038 1017 2.78 55.26% 4.00 0.65 60º 67.5º 8 78.57% 14.29% 7.14%
15th Aug 1939 1038 1011 3.57 71.05% 6.00 1.00 59º 68º 9 75.00% 16.67% 8.33%
6th Feb 1940 1036 1014 2.91 61.11% 5.00 0.78 60º 66º 8 85.71% 14.29%
29th Jun 1943 1032 1014 2.38 56.25% 4.00 0.56 60º 67.5º 7 76.98% 9.06% 0.38% 4.53% 9.06%
6th Jul 1943 1032 1011 2.78 65.63% 4.00 0.55 60º 65º 8 76.34% 8.14% 0.25% 6.11% 9.16%
6th Jul 1943 1032 1011 2.78 65.63% 4.00 0.55 60º 65º 8 76.34% 8.14% 0.25% 6.11% 9.16%
4th Aug 1943 1032 1014 2.38 56.25% 4.00 0.55 60º 67º 6 76.98% 9.06% 0.38% 4.53% 9.06%
10th Mar 1944 1032 1011 2.78 65.63% 3.53 0.48 60º 67º 8 79.39% 8.14% 0.25% 6.11% 6.11%
13th Jun 1944 1032 1014 2.38 56.25% 4.00 0.57 60º 68º 7 79.39% 8.14% 0.25% 12.21%
21st Jun 1951 1030 1013 2.25 56.67% 5.26 0.70 61.5º 66º 7 94.12% 5.88% 0.00%
25th Jul 1951 1030 1010 2.65 66.67% 5.25 0.65 61º 68º 8 87.26% 5.13% 0.76% 1.71% 5.13%
20th May 1952 1030 1012 2.38 60.00% 5.33 0.67 61º 68º 8 86.80% 5.79% 0.18% 2.89% 4.34%
24th Jul 1952 1030 1009 2.78 70.00% 5.33 0.68 61º 69º 8 86.80% 5.79% 0.18% 2.89% 4.34%
5th Sep 1956 1030 1010 2.65 66.67% 6.00 0.77 62º 70.5º 8 74.82% 7.67% 0.24% 3.84% 11.51% 1.92%
10th May 1957 1030 1013 2.25 56.67% 5.62 0.69 62.5º 68º 7 74.82% 7.67% 0.24% 3.84% 11.51% 1.92%
29th Jul 1957 1030 1009 2.78 70.00% 6.32 0.81 62º 72º 8 73.24% 9.39% 0.47% 3.76% 11.27% 1.88%
1st Sep 1965 1030 1012 2.38 60.00% 6.05 0.75 61.5º 69.5º 7 74.82% 7.67% 0.24% 3.84% 11.51% 1.92%
9th Mar 1966 1030 1012 2.38 60.00% 6.05 0.74 61.5º 69º 7 74.91% 7.68% 0.12% 3.84% 11.52% 1.92%
7th Jan 1971 1030 1008 2.91 73.33% 5.08 0.64 62º 71º 7 79.18% 5.66% 0.08% 1.89% 11.31% 1.89%
27th Jun 1971 1030 1011 2.51 63.33% 4.86 0.61 61.5º 69.5º 7 79.06% 3.76% 0.24% 3.76% 11.29% 1.88%
19th Apr 1972 1030 1009 2.78 70.00% 5.19 0.64 62.5º 72º 7 79.15% 5.65% 0.12% 1.88% 11.31% 1.88%
2nd Apr 1975 1030 1008 2.91 73.33% 5.30 0.67 61.5º 70º 7 79.15% 5.65% 0.12% 1.88% 11.31% 1.88%
6th Mar 1980 1030 1008 2.91 73.33% 5.30 0.65 61º 69º 7 79.06% 5.65% 0.24% 1.88% 11.29% 1.88%
18th Mar 1984 1030 1007 3.04 76.67% 5.30 0.65 61º 66º 8 90.35% 5.65% 0.24% 1.88% 1.88%
8th Jul 1992 1034 1011 3.04 67.65% 4.17 0.62 º 70º 7 87.18% 5.13% 2.56% 5.13% 0.00%
Sources:
Maclay brewing records, document numbers M/6/1/1/3, M/6/1/1/4, M/6/1/1/13, M/6/1/1/28, M/6/1/1/35, M/6/1/1/44, M/6/1/1/46, M/6/1/1/49, M/6/1/1/56, M/6/1/1/61, M/6/1/1/64 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive.

The first thing that strikes me is how little this beer changed between 1951 and 1984. The OG was rock solid at 1030, though the FG did decline a point or two. I don't think I've come across a beer whose specs were so stable for so long.

The stability doesn't end there. The hopping rate stayed at around 0.65 lbs per barrel for the whole period. As did the fermentation temperature, with pitching at 61º F, rising to 69º F. Fermentation took 7 or 8 days.

I'm shocked at how little the recipe changed as well. 75-80% pale malt, 5-7% No. 2 invert, 3% DCS sugar, 11% flaked maize, 2% malt extract and a touch of caramel. Between 1956 and 1980 the recipe is basically identical. That's very unusual.

That's quite odd, but not as odd as what comes next.

Matching up brewhouse names with product names can be a nightmare. Especially when you don't have a price list. That's not a problem with Maclay. At least not from the 1970's onwards, because I can remember their beers and they're listed in the Good Beer Guide.

This is the entry for Maclay in the 1982 Good Beer Guide:



I can match these up nae probs with the beers in the brewing records. There's only one thing 60/- could possibly be: PA 6d. Which causes me quite a degree of consternation.

Because I always considered 60/-, and Maclay 60/- in particular, to be Dark Mild. Not only was it called a Pale Ale in the brewery, it was brewed to exactly the same recipe as the 70/- (SPA in the brewhouse) and 80/- (Export). Presumably it was primed with caramel at racking time to get the dark colour.

This in itself isn't that unusual. There were plenty of breweries who made Mild by adding caramel to their Bitter. It still goes on today. What makes me feel weird is this: in way, the BJCP are right in their description of 60/-, 70/- and 80/-. They say that they are different strength versions of the same thing. Which in the case of Maclay is certainly true. Where the BJCP falls down is in not recognising that they are the Scottish versions of Pale Ale rather than mythical "Scottish Ales". And all that bollocks about cool fermentation temperatures, roast barley for colouring, etc.


There's one question unanswered: when did Maclay PA 6d get darker and turn into a pretend Mild?

Friday, 16 March 2012

T & J Bernard Pale Ales 1906 - 1958

Looking around breweries doesn't half give me a thirst. So let's break off from our stroll around Bernard's old brewery and take a look at what they were making: beer.

Funny how when people have looked for differences between English and Scottish brewing they've missed the real points of interest and having wandered off down the path of ignorance into fantasy land. Because the genuine differences are much more fascinating.

Take styles. No, I'm not going to start droning on here about putative Scottish styles. No, my perspective is quite different. Observing how Scotland, like Ireland, was out of phase with developments in beer styles. We all know that Scotland embraced Lager earlier. I'm seeing growing evidence that Scotland also switched it allegiance from (Mild) Ale to Pale Ale much more quickly.

Take a look at the interwar period. What were Scottish brewers making? Loads of Pale Ales and IPAs, a bit of Strong Ale and the odd Stout. No Mild in sight. While in England Mild was still the mainstay of the vast majority of breweries.

That explains why I've a whole stack of Pale Ale analyses for Bernard and not much else. Barnard, you'll note, specifically mentions the production Pale Ale at Bernard. It looks like they were one of the Scottish breweries that jumped on the Pale Ale bandwagon the first time it passed by.

I suppose you'll want to see the table now. I don't like to disappoint:


T & J Bernard Pale Ales 1906 - 1958
Year Beer Style Price size package Acidity FG OG colour ABV App. Attenuation
1924 90/- IPA IPA pint bottled 1013 1041 3.62 68.29%
1928 90/- India PA IPA pint bottled 1005 1039 no. 11 4.43 87.18%
1929 India Pale Ale 90/- (carbonated) IPA pint bottled 1009 1039.5 No 11 3.96 77.22%
1929 90/- India Pale Ale (carbonated) IPA pint bottled 1009.8 1040 No. 13 3.93 75.63%
1929 90/- India Pale Ale IPA pint bottled 1009 1040 58 4.03 77.50%
1933 India Pale Ale IPA pint bottled 1009.5 1038.5 3.76 75.32%
1949 90/- India Pale Ale IPA pint bottled 1006.5 1029.5 2.98 77.97%
1958 India Pale Ale IPA 21d 16 oz can 0.04 1008.9 1030.6 50 2.71 70.92%
1906 54/- PA Pale Ale pint draught 1051.5 12
1906 54/- PA Pale Ale pint draught 1050.2 12
1921 PA 60/- Pale Ale pint draught 1011 1039.2 3.65 71.94%
1922 Pale Ale Pale Ale 7d pint draught 1009.6 1039.2 40 3.84 75.49%
1922 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1005.4 1042.5 27 4.85 87.31%
1923 Carbonated Beer Pale Ale 4d half pint bottled 1012.4 1037.6 45 3.26 67.02%
1923 PA Pale Ale pint bottled 1005 1039 4.43 87.18%
1924 Pale Ale Pale Ale 4d half pint bottled 1013.2 1040.2 35 3.49 67.16%
1924 60/- Pale Ale pint 1014 1040 42 3.36 65.00%
1925 Pale Ale Pale Ale 4d half pint bottled 1010 1038 39 3.63 73.68%
1926 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1009 1040 40 4.03 77.50%
1926 PA Pale Ale pint bottled 1009 1041 30 4.16 78.05%
1927 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1007 1040 4.29 82.50%
1927 90/- Pale Ale pint bottled 1011 1040 40 3.76 72.50%
1928 Pale Ale Pale Ale 4d half pint bottled 1010 1039 3.76 74.36%
1928 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1005 1050 18 5.89 90.00%
1929 Crown Brand Export (carbonated) Pale Ale pint bottled 1005.3 1049 No. 00 5.72 89.29%
1929 90/- (carbonated) Pale Ale pint bottled 1008.5 1038.5 No. 10 3.90 77.92%
1930 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint draught 1012 1040 31 3.63 70.00%
1933 90/- Pale Ale pint draught 1005 1039 4.43 87.18%
1933 Export Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1006 1051 5.89 88.24%
1934 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint draught 1011.3 1041 3.86 72.56%
1939 60/- Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1006 1037.8 9 – 10 4.13 84.11%
1940 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1008.3 1037.8 3.83 78.15%
1941 Pale Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1009 1037.5 3.70 76.00%
1947 80/- Ale Pale Ale 16d pint bottled 1006.5 1034 3.57 80.88%
1947 80/- Ale Pale Ale 16d pint bottled 1006 1033 3.51 81.82%
1947 80/- Ale Pale Ale 16d pint bottled 1006 1034 3.64 82.35%
1947 60/- Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1003.5 1031 3.58 88.71%
1949 Special Export Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1009 1041.5 4.22 78.31%
1949 PA 60/- Pale Ale pint bottled 1007 1031.5 3.18 77.78%
1949 Special Export Ale Pale Ale pint bottled 1007 1041 4.43 82.93%
1958 Export Beer Pale Ale 26d 16 oz can 0.05 1010.1 1043.1 100 4.12 76.57%
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002
Document WY/6/1/1/14 of the William Younger archive held at the Scottish Brewing Archive.
Thomas Usher Gravity Book document TU/6/11
Younger, Wm. & Co Gravity Book document WY/6/1/1/19 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive

What do I need to tell you about that lot? First, look at the different way 90/- was used between the wars. It's not a Strong Ale but a relatively low-gravity, bottle IPA. About 1040º before the war, under 1030º just after it. Shouldn't an IPA be stronger than its Pale Ale? Only if you're living in style-Nazi land. In Britain, especially in London and Scotland, it was often the other way around. And no, those brewers weren't willfully deceiving the public. Just adhering to a different set of conventions and consumer expectations.

You'll notice other points that conflict with modern usage. Like those 80/- Ales from 1947 with gravities around 1034º. The BJCP defines the gravity range as 1040º – 1054º. Yet more consumer fraud by those bastard brewers. Or perhaps a sign that definitions - at least those in drinkers' and brewers' minds - are ephemeral.

You'll see that same with 60/-. All the pre-war examples are way over the upper limit of 1035º imposed by the style definers. Though at least it as actually the type of beer they describe, a Pale Ale. Unlike modern 60/- which is Dark Mild.

The only beers that fit into modern styles are the last few. Those Special Exports squeeze in at the bottom of the modern idea of a Scottish Export. Probably more by coincidence than anything else.