Showing posts with label Pilsen. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pilsen. Show all posts

Friday, 12 September 2014

Bohemian Lagers of the 1880's and 1890's (part two)

Here's the rest of those Bohemian beers I didn't have time and space for last time. Honestly, there's so much material, I'll be busy for months, if not years.


Maybe I'd have made my life simpler had I included the Pale Lagerbiers with the Pilsensers. Then again, maybe not, because, although some of the averages are very close a couple aren't. Meaning I can draw some conclusions about the differences between the two. I was going to say attenaution, then I noticed that outliers - the Prälat Flaschenbier and Touristenbier, that I'm not even sure were Lagerbiers - was dragging the average down. Take them out and attenuation is 74%.

Oh. I notice I've also included a couple that are Pilseners. What the hell, I can't be bothered to fiddle with the tables any more today.

Bohemian Pale Lagerbiers 1886 - 1894
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid %
1895 Bürgerliches Brauhausin den Kgl. Weinbergen, Prague Helles Lagerbier Helles draught 1044.4 1011.2 11.09 4.31 74.77% 0.103
1886 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Lagerbier Lagerbier draught 1047.3 1012.7 11.78 4.49 73.15%
1898 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Lagerbier Lagerbier draught 1047.3 1012.6 11.78 4.50 73.36% 0.103
1891 Wittingauer (Třeboň) Weisses Lagerbier Helles bottled 1048.5 1012.7 12.07 4.65 73.81% 0.099
1895 Aktien-Brauerei Eger Lagerbier Lagerbier draught 1048.5 1012.0 12.07 4.74 75.26% 0.078
1890 Wittingauer (Třeboň) Flaschenbier served in Prague Lagerbier bottled 1048.5 1012.4 12.07 4.69 74.43% 0.160
1894 Kalthausen Pasteurisirtes Touristenbier Lagerbier draught 1051.8 1025.4 12.85 3.39 50.97% 0.146
1890 Kreuzherrn (Krizovnicka) Prälat Flaschenbier served in Prague Lagerbier bottled 1057.0 1020.1 14.07 4.78 64.74% 0.290

Average


1049.2 1014.9 12.22 4.44 70.06% 0.140
Sources:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

The level of acidity is much lower than for Pilsenser and again taking out those two beers, averages to just over 0.1%. I'd have expected the Pilseners to have been cleaner.

The next group are Dark Lagers:

Bohemian Dark Lagers 1890 - 1895
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid %
1890 Br. "U Stajgru" schwarz Flaschenbier served in Prague Dunkles bottled 1036.0 1011.3 9.06 3.20 68.61% 0.150
1890 Br. Zum blauen Hecht schwarz Flaschenbier served in Prague Dunkles bottled 1043.3 1012.5 10.83 3.99 71.13% 0.260
1890 Brauerei "U Flecu" schwarz Flaschenbier served in Prague Dunkles bottled 1046.3 1016.2 11.54 3.89 65.01% 0.180
1895 Bürgerliches Brauhaus in den Kgl. Weinbergen, Prague Schwarzes Königsbier Dunkles draught 1052.1 1016.8 12.92 4.58 67.75% 0.097

Average


1044.4 1014.2 11.09 3.91 68.13% 0.172
Sources:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

Being honest, the only thing they really have in common is their colour. They look like two Schenkbiers one Lagerbier and one stronger beer.

I was delighted to spot U Fleků's beer in there. It's obviously not the same as the current beer, as that's 13º Plato. Now it doesn't say right out in the source that it's a bottom-fermented beer. But, it is in a table devoted to bottom-fermenters and top-fermenting beers have tables of their own.

Pretty crap attenuation and a high level of acidity are other features. The other averages are pretty meaningless as the beers are all of different gravities.

And finally what I'm calling stronger Lagers. Uninspired, I know. Speciální Pivo would be the modern Czech term.


Bohemian stronger Lagers 1888 - 1892
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid %
1890 Wisotschauer Bockbier served in Prague Bock bottled 1047.4 1016.7 11.81 3.96 64.77% 0.270
1891 Smichower Granatbier Export bottled 1053.5 1021.0 13.24 4.19 60.71% 0.121
1891 Pracer Granatbier Export bottled 1053.6 1019.0 13.27 4.48 64.55% 0.092
1892 Gödinger (Hodonín) Märzenbier Märzen draught 1053.6 1026.3 13.27 3.50 50.93% 0.272
1888 Actien Brauhaus, Pilsen Bockbier Bock bottled 1054.8 1015.4 13.56 5.11 71.90%
1888 Actien Brauhaus, Pilsen Exportbier Export draught 1059.7 1014.6 14.70 5.88 75.54%

Average


1053.8 1018.8 13.31 4.52 64.73% 0.189
Sources:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

I've rather arbitrarily attributed styles to some of these. Märzen and the one Export I'm fairly happy with. Granatbier is a guess. There are still quite a few beers called Granát in the Cezh Republic. Usually amber or dark and sometimes 13º or 14º Plato, others 11º or 12º Plato. I seem to remember seeing old adverts or labels for Granát as a stronger Exportni beer. Here you go. I knew I had it somewhere. It's an old enamel advert I spotted on the wall of a Prague pub.:




So, amber (or dark) stronger beer. Sometimes even called Export. They'd be called Speciální Pivo in the modern Czech Republic.

They look very much like the Märzenbier, except for the latter's shitty degree of attenuation. Don't assume the Märzen was amber. It could just as well have been pale. Or even dark.

Clearly Bock meant something different in Bohemia. Neither of those is anything like strong enough to count as a Bock in Austria or Germany. The weaker one looks like a low-end Lagerbier. The stronger one you could maybe call a Märzen.

Finally the Export. Decent gravity, decent attenuation, a fair bit of oomph in the finished product. The strongest beer of the set and doubtless my first choice.

Not sure what I'll do next. There's so much of this stuff. Maybe some of the North German stuff.

Wednesday, 10 September 2014

Bohemian Lagers of the 1880's and 1890's (part one)

I can't express my love for "Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel" in words. Perhaps I should write a song.

I've caught 350 new analyses in the last week or so. There are hundreds more. I've really improved my data set on Czech Lagers, much to my delight. I never dreamed that I'd be able to find so many details. I suppose I should really do something constructive with them. Which I guess this sort of is.

The 58 beers in this set I've somewhat arbitrarily lumped together in 5 groups: Schenkbier, Helles Lagerbier, Dunkles, Pilsener and stronger Lagers. It's arbitrary because the Pilseners are also Pale Lagerbiers and some of the Schenkbiers are Pilseners. But I had to draw the lines somewhere. Feel free to rearrange everything in your head if you disagree with my categorisations.

All the place names were given in German and, where I've been able to work out the Czech name, I've put that in brackets

I'll begin with Schenkbier, because I've the most of them. Which is another confirmation that this was the most common type of beer in Bohemia. As it still is today. I suppose I could have used the modern Czech name of Výčepní Pivo, which is what these beers really are.

Bohemian Pale Schenkbiers 1888 - 1894
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid %
1895 Aktien-Brauerei Eger (Cheb) Abzugsbier Schenkbier draught 1031.2 1003.0 7.89 3.68 90.38% 0.089
1890 Petromitzer Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1037.7 1012.4 9.48 3.28 67.11% 0.270
1890 Nusler Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1037.9 1015.6 9.53 2.88 58.84% 0.170
1890 Popowitzer (Popovice) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1038.4 1010.9 9.65 3.56 71.61% 0.170
1890 Wisotschauer Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1039.0 1013.0 9.79 3.36 66.67% 0.150
1890 Raudnitz (Roudnice nad Labem) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1039.2 1010.6 9.84 3.71 72.96% 0.150
1890 Miliner(Milín) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1039.4 1010.5 9.89 3.75 73.35% 0.230
1890 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1039.6 1007.0 9.94 4.24 82.32% 0.170
1888 Alt-Pilsener Schenkbier? Schenkbier draught 1039.7 1012.1 9.96 3.58 69.52%
1890 Konopischter (Konopiště) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1040.0 1017.8 10.03 2.86 55.50% 0.140
1890 Jinonitzer Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1040.3 1014.7 10.11 3.31 63.52% 0.120
1894 Unknown Abzugsbier Schenkbier draught 1040.9 1012.0 10.25 3.75 70.66% 0.115
1890 Wrschowitzer (Vršovice) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1042.0 1018.2 10.51 3.06 56.67% 0.180
1895 Bürgerliches Brauhaus in den Kgl. Weinbergen, Prague Helles gewönhl. Bier Schenkbier draught 1042.3 1011.6 10.59 3.98 72.58% 0.098
1890 Actien Brauhaus, Smichov Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1042.4 1016.4 10.61 3.35 61.32% 0.170
1891 Unknown, Pilsen Pilsener Schenkbier Schenkbier bottled 1042.6 1014.8 10.66 3.59 65.26% 0.092
1891 Pracer Schenkbier Schenkbier bottled 1042.9 1012.4 10.73 3.95 71.10% 0.131
1898 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Schankbier Schenkbier draught 1043.0 1011.5 10.76 4.09 73.26% 0.112
1890 Pracer Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1043.0 1012.7 10.76 3.93 70.47% 0.170
1894 Unknown Abzugsbier Schenkbier draught 1043.2 1014.5 10.80 3.71 66.44% 0.108
1894 Unknown Abzugsbier Schenkbier draught 1044.7 1016.6 11.16 3.63 62.86% 0.092
1890 Kreuzherrn (Krizovnicka) Flaschenbier served in Prague Schenkbier bottled 1045.5 1020.3 11.35 3.25 55.38% 0.150
1892 Gödinger (Hodonín) Schenkbier Schenkbier draught 1047.6 1018.0 11.85 3.83 62.18% 0.218
1892 Budweiser Schenkbier Schenkbier draught 1047.7 1010.8 11.88 4.80 77.36% 0.258
Average


1041.3 1013.2 10.33 3.63 68.22% 0.154
Sources:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

I was surprised by how low the gravities were for some of this class. Quite a few are below 1040º and one barely over 1030º. On the other hand, a couple at the top end have gravities more in line with a Lagerbier. Thought the majority are between 10º and 11º Plato. The average gravity is just a touch over 10º Plato, which is about what I'd expect.

You'll note that a lot of the weaker examples are bottled beers. I find it a little that the weakest beers should be bottled.

In common with most 19th-century Lagers, the average rate of attenuation isn't great at 68%. In some examples it's a good bit worse than that, leaving the odd beer under 3% ABV. This really isn't how you usually imagine Lager of the 1800's.

Once again, the average acidity looks high. I'd expect a maximum of 0.1%. Compare this values with these ones from the 20th century:

20th-century Czech Lagers
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Attenuation Acidity colour
1935 Pilsner Urquell Pilsner Urquell Pils bottled 1049.4 1013.8 12.28 4.62 72.06% 0.05
1961 Pilsner Urquell Pilsner Urquell Pils bottled 1032.5 1010.9 8.21 2.70 66.46% 0.02 10
1950 Pilsner Urquell Lager Pils bottled 1049 1013.5 12.19 4.61 72.45% 0.08 10.5 B
1950 Pilsner Urquell Lager Pils bottled 1038.9 1010.3 9.77 3.71 73.52% 0.05 11 B
1957 Pilsner Urquell Pilsner Urquell Pils bottled 1036.4 1010.1 9.16 3.41 72.25% 0.04 12
1957 Pilsner Urquell Pilsener Pils bottled 1036.3 1010 9.14 3.41 72.45% 0.04 9
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/001.
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.


What next? How about Pilseners? Using modern Czech terminology, these would be called Světlý Ležák. Or Pale Lagerbier in German. I know. It's very inconsistent as I've also got a group Pale Lagerbiers.

Bohemian Pilseners 1888 - 1894
Year Brewer Beer Style package OG FG OG Plato ABV App. Atten-uation lactic acid %
1894 Mährisch-Neustädter (Uničov) Lagerbier a la Pilsen Pilsener draught 1047.1 1011.1 11.74 4.68 76.43% 0.194
1890 Actien Brauhaus, Pilsen Flaschenbier served in Prague Pilsener bottled 1047.2 1015.8 11.76 4.06 66.53% 0.210
1886 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Pilsener Pilsener draught 1047.8 1015.4 11.89 4.19 67.75%
1897 Unknown Pilsen Original-Pilsener Pilsener draught 1048.0 1014.3 11.95 4.36 70.21% 0.242
1890 Unknown Pilsen Pilsener Pilsener draught 1048.1 1013.1 11.97 4.54 72.77% 0.186
1888 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Pilsener Pilsener draught 1048.5 1015.0 12.07 4.34 69.07%
1898 Unknown Pilsen Pilsener (sold in Berlin) Pilsener draught 1048.5 1014.3 12.07 4.44 70.52%
1891 Actien Brauhaus, Pilsen Pilsener (sold in Zürich) Pilsener draught 1048.9 1012.0 12.16 4.80 75.46%
1891 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Pilsener (sold in Zürich) Pilsener draught 1049.3 1014.6 12.26 4.50 70.39%
1892 Pilsener Export-Brauerei Pilsener (sold in Bern) Pilsener draught 1052.2 1011.1 12.94 5.35 78.74% 0.120
1893 Bürgerliches Brauhaus, Pilsen Pilsener Pilsener draught 1053.2 1013.2 13.18 5.20 75.19% 0.320
Average 1049.0 1013.6 12.18 4.59 72.09% 0.212
Sources:
Chemie der menschlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel by Joseph König, 1903, pages 1102 - 1156

You'll see I've got a few from Pilsen itself. Bürgerliches Brauhaus, I'm sure you realise, is Pilsner Urquell. In terms of gravity and ABV the average is scarily close to modern Pilsner Urquell. Interestingly, four of the 5 strongest examples had been exported abroad.

Attenuation is better than for the Schenkbiers, but still well below the level of modern Lagers. Once again the level of acidity is high, even higher than in Schenkbier.

There are going to be just too many tables if I do all of this in one go. You'll have to wait until next time for the Dark Lagers, strong Lagers and, er, Pale Lagers,

Tuesday, 9 July 2013

German brewing waters

I'd been meaning to write about this for a while, but was delayed, as usual, by my sloth. I wanted to make a comparison with British brewing waters and that required effort. First, to find the right analyses and second to translate the units of measurement. All the British ones are in the very non-SI grains per gallon format.

The quotes are, once again, taken from Ludwig Narziss's article on the Reinheitsgebot.

First the Reinheitsgebot rules about water treatment. Once again it has me scratching my head wondering why some treatments are allowed and others not.

"3.1.3. The brewing liquor, according to the Beer Law, includes every water to be found in nature. A pretreatment for the elimination of iron, of suspended particles or colloids by precipitation and filtration is allowed as is the addition of calcium sulphate and calcium chloride provided that the water does not have a different composition to natural waters. In particular, the neutral reaction must not be changed or varied. The salts mentioned must be added to the water, not to the mash or to the wort. The addition of any inorganic or organic acid is prohibited. Usually the liquor is decarbonated, i.e. the hydrogen carbonates of calcium and magnesium are removed by saturated lime water, but the added calcium-oxide is quantitatively removed. Weak acid ion-exchangers are used too, but the released CO2 must be removed by rinsing and neutralisation by lime water or marble stones. Strong acid exchangers set free the strong mineral acids derived from the corresponding salts. They are neutralised either by lime water — producing the calcium salts of these acids or by anion exchangers which demineralize the water totally. By blending with the original water, the desired water quality is built up. A similar water composition is attained by electro osmosis, reverse osmosis or electro dialysis. The material of the exchangers as well as that of the membranes and nodules must be of food standard.

Materials using this wide field of procedures it is feasible to produce any conceivable water composition. The addition of gypsum is, with or without boiling of the water, the oldest method to equalise the pH-increasing effect of the hydrogen-carbonate. It seems to be one of the benefits of the visit of the two brewers Anton Dreher and Gabriel Sedlmayer to Burton on Trent and the method was called 'Burtonizing' for almost a century.

The addition of acids is thus prohibited, as the balance calcium oxide-carbon dioxide would be varied. It is possible however, to correct the pH of mash or wort by the lactic acid bacteria of acid malt or by the multiplication of those bacteria in wort. This method is used for some of the most respectable beers in Germany, it is not too popular as the bacteria (long rods) which are killed by hops and wort boiling are still present in the beer and are difficult to distinguish from living organisms. A survey on some types of brewing liquors is shown in Table III."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 90, Issue 6, November-December 1984, page 353.

TABLE III. Analytical data of various brewing liquors
Munich Dortmund Munich
Type Original Decarbonated Pilsen Original Decarbonated Decarbonated +20g/Hl CASO4
Total hardness °G 14.8 3.9 1.6 41.3 26.0 9.1
Carbonate hardness 14.2 3.3 1.3 16.8 1.5 1.5
Non carbon-hardness 0.6 0.6 0.3 24.5 24.5 7.6
Calcium-hardness °G 10.6 1.5 1.0 36.7 21.4 6.7
Magnesium-hardness 4.2 2.4 0.6 4.6 4.6 2.4
Residual alcalinity °G 10.6 2.5 0.9 5.7 -5.3 -0.8
SO4 2- mg/l 9.0 9.0 5.2 290 290 180
Cl- mg/l 1.6 1.6 5.0 107 107 1.6
NO3- mg/l Trace Trace Trace Trace Trace Trace

So you can add calcium sulphate and calcium chloride as long as the result is like some water somewhere in the world. I wonder if the Dead Sea and other salt lakes count? They have pretty extreme mineral contents. Not sure they'd be much use for brewing, mind.

I'm so glad Dreher and Sedlmayer get a mention. But I don't believe for a minute that they brought back burtonisation from their trip to Britain. They were there far too early - the 1830's - before the practice had been worked out. I don't think they started burtonising until the 1860's. In any case, Burton brewers had no need to burtonise. Their well water was that way naturally.

I'm struggling to understand why the Reinheitsgebot allows the addition of salts to brewing water but not acids. If I had a brewery, I wouldn't want to deliberately introduce lactic acid bacteria into it. Asking for trouble.

It's time now for the table of British brewing waters. As I don't understand the units being used to measure hardness in the German table, I haven't been able to find similar figures for British waters. In fact, only three entries do match: Cl, SO4 and NO3.


British brewing waters mg/l
Deep Well Waters
Burton
highest lowest Old London well water London Metropolitan Water Board supply.
Total solids (dried) 2280.6 1225.8 461.8 319.3
Sodium—Na 51.3 29.9 98.4 24.2
Calcium—Ca 513.1 270.8 49.9 89.8
Magnesium—Mg 81.2 61.3 18.5 4.3
Nitrate—NO3 42.8 31.4 2.9
Chloride—Cl 67.0 35.6 59.9 18.5
Sulphate—S04 1297.1 655.7 77.0 58.4
Carbonate—CO3 1396.9 139.7 155.4 122.6
Source:
"Brewing Theory and Practice" by E.J. Jeffery, 1956, page 101.

Unsurprisingly, the SO4 content is highest in the Burton waters. Though the level in Dortmund water is considerably higher than all the other waters. The Cl content of Dortmund water is also high, even higher than in Burton. NO3, which is only present as a trace in the German waters, is found in considerable quantities in the Burton waters.

But what really stands out is just how soft Pilsen water is. With bugger all of any mineral in it.